For the pickled cucumber: Combine all ingredients in a container. Cover and let sit for at least an hour. Refrigerate before using.
For the mash: Bring the split peas to a boil in a pot with 1 cup of water and a pinch of salt. Simmer for about 30-40 minutes, covered, until split peas are soft, adding more water if necessary. You will end up with a little extra.
Add 3/4 cup cooked split peas, butter beans, 1/4 cup goat cheese, parsley, oil, salt and pepper to a food processor or high-powered blender. Blend until the mixture is semi-smooth, with a bit of roughness, or to desired consistency. Add additional oil or water to loosen the mixture if needed.
Crumble in the additional 1/4 cup goat cheese and fold it into the mixture along with the almonds, if using.